Space - Unbelievable facts that you don't know about

SPACE - it's always been a mystery, the more we tried to know about it, more it brings Questions in our mind. In this Universe Earth is not the only planet there are millions of planets in Space. Facts about space that you might don't know about.
  1. Mercury and Venus are the only two planets in our solar system that do not have any moons.
  2. If a star passes too close to a black hole, it can be torn apart.
  3. The hottest planet in our solar system is Venus. Most people often think that it would be Mercury, as it’s the closest planet to the sun. This is because Venus has a lot of gasses in its atmosphere, which causes the “Greenhouse Effect”.
  4. The solar system is around 4.6 billion years old. Scientist estimate that it will probably last another 5000 million years.
  5. Enceladus, one of Saturn’s smaller moons, reflects some 90% of the sunlight, making it more reflective than snow!
  6. The highest mountain known to man is the Olympus Mons, which is located on Mars. It’s peak is 15 miles (25KM) high, making it nearly 3 times higher than Mt Everest.
  7. The Whirlpool Galaxy (M51) was the very first celestial object to be identified as being spiral.
  8. A light year is the distance covered by light in a single year, this is equivalent to 5.88 trillion miles (9.5 trillion KM)!
  9. The width of the Milky Way is around 100,000 light years.
  10. The Sun is over 300,000 times larger than Earth.
  11. Footprints and tire tracks left by astronauts on the moon will stay there forever as there is no wind to blow them away.
  12. Because of lower gravity, a person who weighs 100kg on earth would only weigh 38kg on the surface of Mars.
  13. Scientists believe there are 67 moons that orbit Jupiter, however only 53 of these have been named.
  14. The Martian day is 24 hours 39 minutes and 35 seconds.
  15. NASA’s Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) declared that they have found evidence of significant amounts of water on the Earth’s Moon.
  16. The Sun makes a full rotation once every 25-35 days.
  17. Venus is the only planet that spins backwards relative to the other planets.
  18. The force of gravity can sometimes cause comets to tear apart.
  19. It is thanks to the Sun and our own moons gravity that we have high and low tides.
  20. Pluto is smaller than the Earth’s moon!
  21. According to mathematics, white holes are possible, although as of yet, we have found none.
  22. Our moon is around 4.5 billion years old.
  23. There are more volcanoes on Venus than any other planet within our solar system.
  24. Uranus’ blue glow is down to the methane in its atmosphere, which filters out all the red light.
  25. The four planets in our solar system that are known as gas giants are Jupiter, Neptune, Saturn and Uranus.
  26. Uranus has 27 moons that have been discovered so far. Because of its unique tilt, a single night on Uranus lasts for 21 years!
  27. Triton, one of Neptune’s moons, is gradually getting closer to the planet it orbits.
  28. Scientists say that eventually Triton will get so close to Neptune, it will be torn apart by gravity, and Neptune could end up with more rings than Saturn currently has!
  29. The only large moon in our solar system to orbit in the opposite direction of its planet is Neptune’s moon, Triton.
  30. Neptune takes 164.79 years (60,190 days) to make one orbit of the Sun. this means that since it’s discovery in 1846, it has only completed just one orbit!
  31. Charon is one of the moons of Pluto, and is only slightly smaller than Pluto itself.
  32. The Space Station is the largest manned object ever sent into space.
  33. A day on Pluto lasts for 6 days and 9 hours.
  34. Saturn is the second largest planet in our solar system.
  35. Any free-moving liquid in outer space will form itself into a sphere, because of its surface tension.
  36. Earth, Mars, Mercury and Venus are called the inner planets as they are closest to the sun.
  37. We know more about space than we do about deep in our oceans.
  38. The only satellite that Britain has launched was called Black Arrow. Black Arrow was developed during the 1960’s and was used for four launches between 1969 and 1971.
  39. The light takes 8.3 minutes to travel from the Sun the Earth.
  40. The odds of being killed by space debris is 1 in 5 billion.
  41. The Earth’s revolution time increases .0001 seconds annually.
  42. If you were driving at 75 miles (121 km) per hour, it would take 258 days to drive around one of Saturn’s rings.
  43. The first man on the moon was Neil Armstrong. Neil Armstrong first stepped on the moon with his left foot.
  44. The second man on the moon was Buzz Aldrin. “Moon” was Buzz Aldrin’s mother’s maiden name.
  45. The Space Station circles the earth every 90 minutes.
  46. Stars seem to twinkle in the night sky due to the light being disrupted as it passes though the Earth’s atmosphere.
  47. There are three main types of galaxies out in space, and they are spiral, elliptical, and irregular.
  48. There are approximately 200,000,000,000 stars in the Milky Way.
  49. In the northern skies, you are able to see two galaxies. These are the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), and the Triangulum Galaxy (M33).
  50. The planet with the most moons in our galaxy is Jupiter, with 67.
  51. The closest galaxy to us is the Andromeda Galaxy.
  52. The first Supernovae that was observed outside of our own galaxy was the S Andromeade, in the Andromeda galaxy in 1855.
  53. The Andromeda Galaxy appears in the night sky as a smudge of light, and is in fact the most furthest away object in the night sky that you can see with your eyes.
  54. The distance between the Sun and Earth is defined as an Astronomical Unit, or AU for short.
  55. The Mariner 10 is the only spacecraft that has ever visited the planet Mercury. It managed to take pictures of about 45% of the surface.
  56. If you shouted in space even if someone was right next to you they wouldn’t be able to hear you.
  57. February in 1865 and 1999 are the only months in recorded history not to have a full moon.
  58. Due to the lack of gravity in space, astronauts can grow approximately two inches in height.
  59. The Kuiper Belt is a region of the Solar System beyond the orbit of Neptune.
  60. The first woman in space was a Russian called Valentina Tereshkova.
  61. There are currently 166 moons in our solar system.
  62. The largest star known to man is R136a1, which has a mass of 265-320 times that of our sun!
  63. The first artificial satellite in space was called sputnik.
  64. The furthest away galaxy from Earth, that has been discovered, is GRB 090423, which is 13.6 billion light years away! This means that the light we see from it began its journey only 600,000 years after the Universe was created!
  65. The largest black hole known to man is the Quasar OJ287, and has an expected mass of 18 billion times that of our own sun.
  66. Our moon is moving away from Earth at a rate of 4cm (1.6 Inches) per year!
  67. Pluto is named after the Roman god of the underworld, not the Disney Dog.
  68. The Sun is the largest object in our solar system.
  69. When fully constructed, the Space Station will be visible for more than 90% of the Earth’s population.
  70. Although Saturn is the second largest planet in our solar system, it is also the lightest planet!
  71. Asteroids are the byproducts of formations in the solar system, more than 4 billion years ago
  72. Astronauts cannot burp in space!
  73. As there is no air in space, no one is able to hear each other speak – as the air is needed to carry the sound vibrations.
  74. Uranus was originally called “George’s Star”.
  75. The Sun loses up to a billion kilogrammes per second due to the solar winds.
  76. As Saturn has a very low density, if you were able to put it into water, it would float!
  77. The mass of the Moon is about one-eightieth of the Earth’s mass.
  78. The first living mammal to ever go into space was a dog named “Laika” from Russia.
  79. The term “astronaut” is derived from the Greek words ástron, meaning “star”, and nautes, which means “sailor”. So, the word astronaut means star sailor!
  80. All together, the space travelers have spent just over 30,400 days (83 years) in space!
  81. Sergei K. Krikalevo has spent more time in space than anyone else. He has racked up a total of 803 days, 9 hours and 39 minutes, which is equivalent to 2.2 years!
  82. Mercury has no atmosphere which means there is no wind or weather.
  83. Only 24 people have ever seen our whole planet from Space. However, thanks to Google Earth, which has now been downloaded over 500 million times, we can add a few more to that original number!
  84. Red Dwarf stars that are low in mass can burn continually for up to 10 trillion years!
  85. There is an estimated 2 x 10^23 stars in space. In English, this is: 200,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000!
  86. Scientists used to believe that the same side of Mercury always faced the sun. Then in 1965 astronomers discovered that the planet rotates three times during every two orbits it makes.
  87. Jupiter is known as the dumping ground for our solar system, as a large percentage of asteroids are pulled in by Jupiter’s gravity.
  88. A day on Mercury is equivalent to 58 Earth days, and a year is equivalent to 88 days!
  89. As space has no gravity, normal pens won’t work!
  90. On average it takes the light only 1.3 seconds to travel from the moon to the earth.
  91. There are 88 recognized star constellations in our night sky.
  92. The center of a comet is called a nucleus.
  93. As early as 240 B.C. the Chinese began to document the appearance of Halley’s Comet.
  94. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union reclassified Pluto as a dwarf planet.
  95. There are now 4 dwarf planets in the Solar System: Ceres, Pluto, Eris and Makemake.
  96. Buzz Light year has been out in space! He has spent 15 months on board the International Space Station, and returned to Earth on the 11th of September, 2009.
  97. Saturn's moon Titan has plenty of evidence of organic (life) chemicals in its atmosphere.
  98. Life is known to exist only on Earth, but in 1986 NASA found what they thought might be fossils of microscopic living things in a rock from Mars.
  99. Most scientists say life's basic chemicals formed on the Earth. The astronomer Fred Hoyle said they came from space.
  100. Oxygen is circulated around the helmet in space suits in order to prevent the visor from misting.
  101. The middle layers of space suits are blown up like a balloon to press against the astronaut's body. Without this pressure, the astronaut's body would boil!
  102. The gloves included in the space suit have silicon rubber fingertips which allow the astronaut some sense of touch.
  103. The full cost of a spacesuit is about $11 million although 70% of this is for the backpack and the control module.
  104. Ever wondered how the pull of gravity is calculated between heavenly bodies? It's simple. Just multiply their masses together, and then divide the total by the square of the distance between them.
  105. Glowing nebulae are named so because they give off a dim, red light, as the hydrogen gas in them is heated by radiation from the nearby stars.
  106. The Drake Equation was proposed by astronomer Frank Drake to work out how many civilizations there could be in our galaxy - and the figure is in millions.
  107. SETI is the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence - the program that analyzes radio signals from space for signs of intelligent life.
  108. The Milky Way galaxy we live in: is one among the BILLIONS in space.
  109. The Milky Way galaxy is whirling rapidly, spinning our sun and all its other stars at around 100 million km per hour.
  110. The Sun travels around the galaxy once every 200 million years – a journey of 100,000 light years.
  111. There may be a huge black hole in the very middle of the most of the galaxies.
  112. One problem with working out the age of the Universe is that there are stars in our galaxy which are thought to be 14 to 18 billion years old – older than the estimated age of the Universe. So, either the stars must be younger, or the Universe older.
  113. The very furthest galaxies are spreading away from us at more than 90% of the speed of light.
  114. The Universe was once thought to be everything that could ever exist, but recent theories about inflation (e.g. Big Bang) suggest our universe may be just one of countless bubbles of space time.
  115. The Universe may have neither a center nor an edge, because according to Einstein’s theory of relativity, gravity bends all of space time around into an endless curve.
  116. If you fell into a black hole, you would stretch like spaghetti.
  117. Matter spiraling into a black hole is torn apart and glows so brightly that it creates the brightest objects in the Universe – quasars.
  118. The swirling gases around a black hole turn it into an electrical generator, making it spout jets of electricity billions of kilometers out into space.
  119. The opposite of black holes are estimated to be white holes which spray out matter and light like fountains.
  120. Nicolaus Copernicus was the astronomer who first suggested that the Sun was the center, and that the Earth went round the sun.
  121. The ideas of Copernicus came not from looking at the night sky, but from studying ancient astronomy.
  122. As the earth turns, the stars come back to the same place in the night sky every 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.09 seconds. This is a sidereal day (star day).
  123. When Neil Armstrong stepped on the Moon for the first time, he said these famous words: “That’s one small step for a man; one giant leap for mankind.”
  124. From the moon, astronauts brought back 380 kg of Moon rock.
  125. During the moon landing, a mirror was left on the Moon’s surface to reflect a laser beam which measured the Moon’s distance from the Earth with amazing accuracy.
  126. The stars in each constellation are named after a Greek alphabet.
  127. The brightest star in each constellation is called the Alpha Star, the next brightest Beta, and so on.
  128. The distance to the planets is measured by bouncing radar signals off them and timing how long the signals take to get there and back.
  129. Spacecrafts have double hulls (outer coverings) which protect them against other space objects that crash into them.
  130. Manned Spacecrafts have life support systems that provide oxygen to breathe, usually mixed with nitrogen (as in ordinary air). Charcoal filters out smells.
  131. Spacecrafts toilets have to get rid of waste in low gravity conditions, Astronauts have to sit on a device which sucks away the waste. Solid waste is dried and dumped in space, but the water is saved.
  132. A comet’s tail is made as it nears the Sun and begins to melt. A vast plume of gas millions of kilometers across is blown out behind by the solar wind. The tail is what you see, shining as the sunlight catches it.
  133. The Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet smashed into Jupiter in July 1994, with the biggest crash ever witnessed.
  134. Giant stars have burned all their hydrogen, and so burn helium, fusing helium atoms to make carbon.
  135. The constellation of Cygnus, the Swan, contains the very biggest star in the known universe – a hyper giant which is almost a million times as big as the sun.
  136. Planet Uranus was discovered by William Herschel, who wanted to name the planet George, after King George III, but Uranus was eventually chosen.
  137. The first rockets were made 1,000 years ago in China.
  138. Robert Goddard launched the very first liquid-fuel rocket in 1926.
  139. Over 100 artificial satellites are now launched into space every year, a few of which are space telescopes.
  140. The lower a satellite’s orbit, the faster it must fly to avoid falling back to the Earth. Most satellites fly in low orbits, 300 km from the earth.
  141. Hipparchus was the first astronomer to try to work out how far away the Sun is.
  142. The red color of Mars is due to oxidized (rusted) iron in its soil.
  143. Mars’s volcano Olympus Mons is the biggest in the solar system. It covers the same area as Ireland and is three times higher than our Mount Everest.
  144. Planets have magnetic field around them because of the liquid iron in their cores. As the planets rotate, so the iron swirls, generating electric currents that create the magnetic field.
  145. Earth’s atmosphere is the only atmosphere discovered till date that human can breathe in.
  146. Earth’s atmosphere was formed from gases pouring out from volcanoes.
  147. Jupiter has no surface for a spacecraft to land on because it is made mostly from helium gas and hydrogen. The massive pull of Jupiter’s gravity squeezes the hydrogen so hard that it is liquid.
  148. Jupiter spins right round in less than 10 hours which means that the planet’s surface is moving at nearly 50,000 km/hr.
  149. The first successful planetary space probe was the USA’s Mariner 2, which flew past Venus in 1962.
  150. Voyager 2 has flown over 6 billion km and is heading out of the solar system after passing close to Neptune in 1989.
  151. To save fuel on journeys to distant planets, space probes may use a nearby planet’s gravity to catapult them on their way. This is called slingshot.
  152. Hubble’s law showed that Universe is getting bigger – and so must have started very small. This led to the idea of Big Bang.
  153. It’s believed that it was the impact of a big meteorite may have chilled the earth and wiped out all the dinosaurs.
  154. The first astronomers thought the regular pulses from far space might be signals from aliens, and pulsars were jokingly called LGMs (short for Little Green Men).
  155. Pulsars probably result from a supernova explosion - that is why most are found in the flat disc of the Milky Way, where supernovae occur.
  156. Three moons have yet been found to have their own moons: Saturn’s moon Titan, Jupiter’s Lo, and Neptune’s Triton.
  157. The largest moon in the Solar System is the Jupiter’s moon Ganymede.
  158. Saturn is not solid, but is made almost entirely of gas – mostly liquid hydrogen and helium. Only in the planet’s very small core is there any rock.
  159. Winds ten times stronger than a hurricane on Earth swirl around Saturn’s equator reaching up to 1100 km/h – and they never let up: even for a moment.
  160. The first space station was the Soviet Salyut 1 launched in April 1971; its low orbit meant it stayed up only five months.
  161. In April 2001, Dennis Tito became the first space tourist, ferried up to the ISS by the Russian Soyuz space shuttle.
  162. Einstein’s theory of general relativity shows that gravity not only pulls on matter, but also space and even ‘Time’ itself.
  163. Since the star Deneb is 1800 light years away, we see it as it was when the emperor Septimus Severius was ruling the Rome (AD 200).
  164. With powerful telescopes, astronomers can see galaxies 2 billion light years away. This means we see them as they were when the only life forms in Earth were bacteria.
  165. The slowest rotating planet is Venus, which takes 243.01 days to turn around.
  166. The fastest spinning objects in the Universe are neutron stars – these can rotate 500 times in just 1 second.
  167. In summer in Uranus, the sun does not set for 20 years. In winter, darkness lasts for 20 years. In autumn, the sun rises and sets every 9 hours.
  168. Uranus’s moon Miranda is the weirdest moon of all. It seems to have been blasted apart, and then put together again.
  169. Solar flares reach temperatures of 10 million °C and have the energy of a million atom bombs.
  170. True binary stars are two stars held together by one another’s gravity, which spend their lives whirling around together like a pair of dancers.
  171. Halley predicted that a comet he had discovered would return in 1758, 16 years after his death, and it really did. It was the first time a comet’s arrival had been predicted, and the comet was named after him as Halley’s Comet.
  172. Ceres is the biggest asteroid in the Solar System – 940 km across, and 0.0002% the size of the earth.
  173. The sun is about 5 billion years old and half a way through its life – as a medium sized star it will probably live for around 10 billion years.
  174. Neptune’s mood Triton is the coldest place in the Solar System, with surface temperatures of -236°C.
  175. Voyager 2 will beam back data until 2020 as it travels beyond the edges of the Solar System.
  176. The Pioneer 10 and 11 probes carry metal plaques with messages for aliens telling them about us.
  177. Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity (1905) shows that all measurements are relative, including time and speed. In other words, time and speed depends upon where you measure them.
  178. When things are falling, their acceleration cancels out gravity, which is why astronauts in orbits are weightless.
  179. The first space telescope was the Copernicus, sent out in 1972.
  180. Astronauts learn Scuba diving which helps them to deal with space walks.
  181. The first manned space flight was made in April 1961 by the Soviet Cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1.
  182. The heart of a star reaches 16 million °C. A grain of sand this hot would kill someone 150 km away.
  183. Stars twinkle because we see them through the wafting of the atmosphere.
  184. The sun weighs 2,000 trillion trillion tones – about 300,000 times as much as the Earth – even though it is made almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, the lightest gases in the Universe.
  185. The sun gets hot because it is so big that the pressure in its core is so tremendous – enough to force the nuclei of hydrogen atoms to fuse to make helium atoms. This nuclear reaction is like a gigantic atom bomb and it releases huge amounts of heat.
  186. The nuclear fusion reactions in the Sun’s core send out billions of light photons every minute but they take 10 million years to reach its surface.
  187. The Hiroshima bombs released 84 trillion joules of energy. A supernova releases 125,000 trillion trillion times as such.
  188. The most distant galaxies (quasars) have red shifts so big that they must be moving away from us at speeds approaching the speed of light.
  189. When light waves from distant galaxies are stretched out his way, they look redder. This is called red shift.
  190. The moon’s gravity is 17% of the Earth’s so astronauts in space suits can jump 4 m high on the moon.
  191. The moon is the only other world that humans have set foot on. Because the moon has no atmosphere or wind, the footprints planted in its dusty surface in 1969 by the Apollo astronauts are still there today, perfectly preserved.
  192. On the moon’s surface are large dark patches called seas – because this is what people once believed they were. They are, in fact, lava flows from ancient volcanoes.
  193. Quasars are the most distant known objects in the Universe. Even the nearest is billions of light years away.
  194. The brightest quasar is 3C 273, 2 billion light years away.
  195. The brightest stars in the night sky are not actually stars, but the planets Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Mercury.
  196. Jupiter’s moon Europa may have oceans of water beneath its dry surface and it is a major target in the search for life in the Solar System.
  197. Galaxies are often found in a group or clusters. One cluster may have 30 or so galaxies in it.
  198. In the 1970s the US Vikings 1 and 2 and the Soviet Mars 3 and 5 probes all reached the surface of Mars.
  199. The Solar System has nine planets including Pluto, but Pluto may be an escaped moon or an asteroid not a planet.
  200. The Milky Way belongs to a cluster of 30 galaxies called the Local Group, which is 7 million light years across.
  201. The Virgo Cluster is 50 million light years away and is made up of 1000 galaxies.
  202. For a satellite or a spacecraft to stay in orbit 200 km above the earth, it has to fly over 8 km/sec.
  203. When a spacecraft reaches 140% of the orbital velocity i.e. 11.2 km/sec, it is going fast enough to break free of the Earth’s gravity. This is called escape velocity.
  204. Saturn’s rings are sets of thin rings of ice, dust and tiny rocks, which orbit the planet around its equator.
  205. A tablespoon of neutron star would weigh about ten billion tones.
  206. The earth actually takes 365.24219 days to orbit the Sun, which is called one Solar Year. To compensate for the missing 0.242 days, the western calendar adds an extra day in February every fourth (leap) year, but misses out three leap years every four centuries.
  207. X-Rays cannot reach the earth’s atmosphere, so astronomers can only detect them using space telescopes such as ROSAT.
  208. The Sun has sunspots, the dark spots on the Sun’s photo sphere (surface), 2000°C cooler than the rest of the surface.
  209. After the big bang, there was antimatter, the mirror image of matter. Antimatter and matter destroyed each other when they met, thus they annihilated. Matter just won, but the Universe was left almost empty.
  210. The afterglow of the Big Bang can still be detected as microwave background radiation coming from all over space.
  211. Dishes in the space telescopes have to be made accurate two billionths of a millimeter.
  212. You can see another galaxy with the naked eye: the Andromeda Galaxy, 2.2 million light years away.
  213. Dried up riverbeds show that Mars probably once had water in its surface. There is sometimes ice at the poles and maybe water underground.
  214. For a satellite to fly off into the space, its momentum should be greater than the pull of gravity of the earth.
  215. The future of the Universe may depend on how much dark matter there is. If there is too much, its gravity will eventually stop the Universe’s expansion – and make it shrink again.
  216. If two pieces of the same type of metal touch in space, they will bond and be permanently stuck together
  217. More energy from the sun hits Earth every hour than the planet uses in a year.


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